In July, we examined buyouts of delinquent GNMA loans, with special focus on the buyout efficiency for bank servicers. At that time, several banks were 98% to 99% efficient at buying out delinquent loans, where efficiency is defined as the percentage of 90+ days delinquent loans that are repurchased. In this short note, we update the buyout efficiency of major bank and non-bank servicers. 

Buyout efficiency varies widely among banks. While the most efficient banks repurchase nearly 100% of eligible loansothers, including Flagstar and Citizens Bank, opt to leave virtually all the 90+ day delinquent loans they service in securities. In the table below, we show the dollar-weighted buyout efficiencies for top banks, as well as the UPB of each bank’s unpurchased 90+ day delinquent loans, as of the January 2021 factor date.

Buyout efficiency for 90+ day delinquent loans, data as of January 2021. 

Servicers listed by total UPB serviced.

The overhang of seriously delinquent loans serviced by Flagstar and Citizens is spread across several GN2 Multi-lender sectors, with concentrations of delinquent loans rising to just 1% of the total current face of 2018 4% and 2018 4.5% cohorts. If Flagstar and Citizens were to repurchase all of their delinquent loans in a single month, it would add roughly 11-12 CPR to these cohorts. This represents the upper limit in involuntary speed, and actual speeds would likely be much slower with repurchases spread over several months.

The markedly lower buyout efficiency among GNMA non-bank servicers has created involuntary prepay overhang that is potentially much more daunting. The following table summarizes top non-bank servicers, their buyout efficiency over the past two quarters, and their current overhang of 90+ day delinquent loans.

Buyout efficiency for 90+ day delinquent loans, data as of January 2021.

Servicers listed by total UPB serviced.

Both Penny Mac and Lakeview have improved their buyout efficiency over the last quarter and may continue to do so, as more investors begin to embrace the GNMA EBO trade. The multi-lender cohorts with the most exposure to 90+ day DQ loans serviced by Penny Mac or Lakeview include 2020 3.5s as well as 2017-19 production 3.5s and 4s, with each cohort ranging between 4% to 5% of its current face.

This final table, below, illustrates the impact of forbearance on buyout activity among non-banks. While forbearance status seems to pose no impediment to buyouts for banks — in fact, banks with the highest buyout efficiency seem to favor repurchasing loans that are in COVID-forbearance over loans that are “naturally” delinquent – non-bank behavior is more nuanced.

Of the top five non-bank servicers, only Lakeview has generated significant repurchases of loans in COVID forbearance, repurchasing 10% of eligible loans in Q4. In the table below, we separate the 90+ day delinquent loans by their forbearance status and then compute each servicer’s buyout efficiency across these sub-cohorts.

Buyout efficiency for 90+ day delinquent loans, data as of January 2021.

Lakeview’s buyout behavior suggests that forbearance is not an impediment to non-bank repurchases. If we see continued improvements in buyout efficiency over the next few months, involuntary speeds in GNMA securities have the potential to rise significantly.


Contact us if you are interested in seeing variations on this theme. Using Edge, we can examine any loan characteristic and generate a S-curve, aging curve, or time series.